Brush the teeth every morning and before bed at night, and use dental floss to remove dental plaque to keep the teeth white. If there was certain sickness or, if tetracycline a kind of antibiotics is taken during the development of teeth, the teeth formed will be greyish-blue to brownish-yellow. Cause 1 Tooth decay Treatment The dentist removes the tooth decay, and then puts on a filling. Cause 2 Pulp necrosis The pulp becomes necrotic because of tooth trauma or tooth decay, and the tooth will appear greyish-black.
Treatment Endodontic treatment must be done to treat the discoloured tooth which has pulp necrosis.
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Tooth after root canal therapy. If teeth still appear greyish-black, dentist can treat the discoloured teeth by bleaching, laminate veneer or crown. Skip to main content Family's Campus -Children aged 7 or above - Oral Problems - Abnormal tooth colour Please note that in-text links in this page will open a new window. The scientists then reactivated the pathway using the diabetes drug metformin to restore the ability of stem cells to grow and differentiate into bone-producing osteoblasts and prevent bone ageing.
The MSCs are precursors of bone producing osteoblasts and the protein encoded by the ALPL gene is enriched in the stem cell membrane, with involvement in ATP metabolism during cell differentiation. Liu et al. Alkaline phosphatase ALP was initially identified in as a ubiquitous ectoenzyme widely distributed in nature from bacteria to humans. ALP is a well-known osteoblastic marker used as a diagnostic index to detect the bone forming capacity in osteoporosis.
Genetic studies investigating ALPL in humans and mice strongly implied the necessity of the gene in postnatal bone formation and that bone deformities were related to the degree of ALPL deficiency. Although the function of ALPL was established in bone development, its role in bone ageing remained unknown. Bone ageing is the primary contributor to osteoporosis that also results in decreased bone mass and increased fat.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are common progenitors of osteoblasts and adipocytes, undergoing senescence at the cellular level during bone ageing. Previous studies showed that rescuing the function of MSCs had significant therapeutic impact on ensuing regenerative capacity and bone mass. The combined expression and activity were detected using ALP activity assays, western blotting and immunohistochemistry in ageing mouse models. The scientists showed that bone ageing was associated with decreased Alpl expression in the bone marrow.
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Relative to the wild type group, the knockout mice showed nearly 50 percent reduction in serum ALP activity and mimicked premature bone ageing, accompanied with age-related bone mass loss and marrow fat gain. The study further showed that in MSCs, Alpl prevented bone ageing sensitivity by specifically regulating senescence and cell differentiation to govern the osteo-adipogenic balance of bone marrow stem cells. Metformin is commonly known as a first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, recently used as an anti-ageing drug while successfully extending the longevity and lifespan in experimental mice.
In the study, metformin demonstrated a stronger capacity to rescue the differentiation in knockdown MSCs in vitro and in knockdown mice in vivo, compared to the alternative therapeutic potential sought via the overexpression of the Alpl gene. Collectively, the authors revealed a previously unrecognized role of Alpl gene in the prevention of bone ageing, with ATP-mediated functional alterations in MSCs and the potential of metformin treatment as an effective therapy in Alpl-deficient bone ageing.
Future mechanistic studies at the cellular level will explore how Alpl regulates the ability of MSCs to release ATP and the broader impact of Alpl-deficiency on other organs. Explore further. Vladimir N. Metformin: Do we finally have an anti-aging drug? DOI: Paolo Bianco et al. The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine, Nature Medicine Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute.
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